TRPM7 is a ubiquitously expressed nonselective cation channel fused to a C-terminal alpha kinase. TRPM7 current is typically small at physiological magnesium concentrations, but large outwardly rectifying currents develop in low-magnesium extracellular solution when cells are dialyzed with magnesium free solutions during whole-cell patch clamp recordings. In addition to regulation by magnesium, TRPM7 current is potentiated by low extracellular pH and inhibited by depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2) during phospholipase C mediated signaling events. A diverse body of literature has implicated TRPM7 in fundamental cellular processes including death, survival, proliferation, cell cycle progression, magnesium homeostasis and responses to shear stress and oxidative stress. Global deletion of TRPM7 in mouse results in embryonic lethality and a thymocyte-restricted conditional knockout exhibits defective thymopoeisis, suggesting a role for TRPM7 in development and organogenesis. In disease states, TRPM7 has been linked to Guamanian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonian dementia (ALS/PD), various forms of neoplasia, hypertension and delayed neuronal death following cerebral ischemia.