Iodine antiseptics exhibit superior antimicrobial efficacy and do not cause acquired microbial resistance. However, they are underused in comparison with antibiotics in infection treatments, partly because of their adverse effects such as pain and allergy. The cause of these noxious effects is not fully understood, and no specific molecular targets or mechanisms have been discovered. In this study, we show that iodine antiseptics cause pain and promote allergic contact dermatitis in mouse models, and iodine stimulates a subset of sensory neurons that express TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels. In vivo pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of these channels indicates that TRPA1 plays a major role in iodine antiseptics-induced pain and the adjuvant effect of iodine antiseptics on allergic contact dermatitis and that TRPV1 is also involved. We further demonstrate that iodine activates TRPA1 through a redox mechanism but has no direct effects on TRPV1. Our study improves the understanding of the adverse effects of iodine antiseptics and suggests a means to minimize their side effects through local inhibition of TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels.