Triopia: Craniofacial malformation with prosencephalic duplication

E. J. Stelnicki, J. L. Marsh, T. A. Woolsey, B. C.P. Lee, M. J. Noetzel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


A case of ocular duplication with complex craniofacial and central nervous system anomalies is described. The anomaly is termed triopia because the child's most overt and distinguishing feature was three eyes: the left orbit contained two globes with independent ocular adnexa; the right orbit contained one normal appearing and functioning globe. Computer assisted medical imaging was used to define, in vivo, the intra- and extracranial soft and hard tissue anomalies: the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to the ocular duplication was also duplicated. Possible bases for this anomaly include duplication of primordia for the eye and secondary prosencephalon.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)334-345
Number of pages12
JournalCleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1995


  • craniofacial anomaly
  • neural plate
  • ocular anomaly
  • retinoic acid


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