The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 is a recently described molecule, which plays an important role in myeloid cell-activated inflammatory responses. TREM-1 is expressed on blood neutrophils and monocytes, and also on alveolar macrophages, thus suggesting a potential role in lung inflammatory responses against infections. To investigate the differential expression of TREM-1 in lung infections, its levels were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from patients with community-acquired pneumonia or tuberculosis. TREM-1 was also investigated in patients with interstitial lung diseases, as a model of noninfectious inflammatory disease of the lung. TREM-1 expression was significantly increased in lung neutrophils and in lung macrophages of patients with pneumonia (n=7; 387.9±61.4 and 660.5±18.3, respectively) compared with patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (n=7; 59.2±13.1 and 80.6±291.2) and patients with interstitial lung diseases (n=10; 91.8±23.3 and 123.9±22.8). In contrast, TREM-1 expression on peripheral blood neutrophils was no different among the three groups. In conclusion, these data suggest that triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 is selectively expressed in the lungs of patients with pneumonia caused by extracellular bacteria and not in patients with tuberculosis, providing a potential marker for differential diagnosis.
- Bacterial infections
- Bronchoalveolar lavage
- Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1