Background: The purpose of this study was to assess compliance with antimicrobial spectrum guidelines in the use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) in pediatric surgery. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of children undergoing elective clean-contaminated and clean surgical procedures with foreign body implantation using the Pediatric Health Information System database (10/2015–6/2018) was performed. Compliance rates with consensus guidelines surrounding appropriate spectrum of SAP coverage were calculated for each procedure. Undertreatment was defined as the use of SAP with inappropriately narrow coverage (or omission altogether), while overtreatment was defined as inappropriately broad coverage. Results: Eight procedure groups including a total of 15,708 patients were included. Overall, 44% of cases received inappropriate prophylaxis, of which 58% were considered undertreatment and 42% overtreatment. Procedures with the highest rates of overtreatment included small bowel procedures (77%), colorectal procedures (29%), and hepatobiliary procedures (20%), while the highest rates of undertreatment were associated with placement of tunneled central venous catheters and ports (43%), hepatobiliary procedures (24%), and colorectal procedures (20%). Conclusion: Noncompliance with the recommended spectrum of coverage for surgical antibiotic prophylaxis is common in pediatric surgery, with both over and undertreatment being common themes. Improved compliance is needed to optimize both antibiotic stewardship and infection prevention. Type of study: Treatment study. Level of evidence: Level III.
- Antibiotic stewardship
- Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis
- Surgical site infection