Trends in the Etiology of Infectious Corneal Ulcers at the F. I. Proctor Foundation

Gita Varaprasathan, Kevin Miller, Thomas Lietman, John P. Whitcher, Vicky Cevallos, Masao Okumoto, Todd P. Margolis, Miao Yinghui, Emmett T. Cunningham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


Objective: We analyzed laboratory results from corneal ulcers seen from 1976 to 1999 at the Francis I. Proctor Foundation, a referral center in San Francisco, to determine the relative frequencies of pathogens and to analyze for trends in frequencies of the most common pathogens. The results were compared with a previous study of corneal ulcers seen from 1948 to 1976 at the same institution. Methods: Ulcers presenting to the Proctor Foundation were Gram stained and cultured using standard techniques. Herpetic corneal ulcers were excluded from the study. Results: Organisms were isolated from 427 ulcers, 38% of all cases. Two hundred seventy-eight (59%) isolates were gram-positive bacteria, 145 (31%) gram-negative bacteria, 16 (3%) Acanthamoeba spp., and 36 (8%) fungi. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism, composing 20% of all isolates, followed by viridans group streptococci (12%), Streptococcuspneumoniae (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Moraxella spp. (5%), and Serratia marcescens (4%). Over the 24-year study period the proportion of positive cultures decreased and the incidence of S. marcescens increased significantly. Comparing the period of 1948-1976 to 1976-1999, the frequency of S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa decreased, and that of S. marcescens increased significantly. Conclusion: The common pathogens associated with corneal ulcers have changed over the past 50 years in Northern California, with S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa being isolated relatively less often and S. marcescens being isolated with increasing frequency. The decrease in isolation of organisms over the 1976-1999 period may have resulted from increasing empiric antibiotic treatment by referring ophthalmologists.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)360-364
Number of pages5
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 1 2004


  • Corneal ulcer
  • Serratia marcescens
  • Trends


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