Trends in Sodium Intake in Children and Adolescents in the US and the Impact of US Department of Agriculture Guidelines: NHANES 2003-2016

Adam M. Brouillard, Elena Deych, Charles Canter, Michael W. Rich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To examine trends in sodium intake and the impact of nutritional guidelines in the US pediatric population. Study design: Sodium intake data collected between 2003 and 2016 in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were analyzed. Trends in intake for individuals aged 4-17 years and subgroups based on age, sex, and race and ethnicity were examined. Adherence to US Department of Agriculture guidelines was assessed. Results: A total of 16 013 individuals (50.6% male) were included in the analysis. The median sodium intake was 2840 mg/day (95% CI, 2805-2875 mg/day), decreasing from 2912 mg/day (95% CI 2848-2961 mg/day) in 2003-2004 to 2787 mg/day (95% CI, 2677-2867 mg/day) in 2015-2016 (P =.005). Intake increased with age (2507 mg/day for individuals aged 4-8, 2934 mg/day for those aged 9-13 years, and 3124 mg/day for those aged 14-17 years; P <.001) and was greater in males than in females (3053 mg/day vs 2624 mg/day; P <.001). Caucasians, Hispanics, and African Americans consumed 2860, 2733, and 2880 mg/day, respectively (P <.001). Population adherence to US Department of Agriculture recommendations was 25.0% in 2003-2010 and 25.5% in 2011-2016 (P =.677). No age, sex, or racial/ethnicity subgroup had an adherence rate >30% after implementation of pediatric guidelines in 2010. Conclusions: Sodium intake remains elevated in all pediatric population segments, and guideline adherence is poor. A greater effort to reduce sodium consumption is needed to mitigate future cardiovascular disease risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)117-123
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
Volume225
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2020

Keywords

  • NHANES
  • nutrition
  • sodium

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