Treatment plan optimization incorporating respiratory motion

Tiezhi Zhang, Robert Jeraj, Harry Keller, Weiguo Lu, Gustavo H. Olivera, Todd R. McNutt, Thomas R. Mackie, Bhudatt Paliwal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

81 Scopus citations


Similar to conventional conformal radiotherapy, during lung tomotherapy, a motion margin has to be set for respiratory motion. Consequently, large volume of normal tissue is irradiated by intensive radiation. To solve this problem, we have developed a new motion mitigation method by incorporating target motion into treatment optimization. In this method, the delivery-breathing correlation is determined prior to treatment plan optimization. Beamlets are calculated by using the CT images at the corresponding breathing phases from a dynamic (four-dimensional) image sequence. With the displacement vector fields at different breathing phases, a set of deformed beamlets is obtained by mapping the dose to the primary phase. Optimization incorporating motion is then performed by using the deformed beamlets obtained by dose mapping. During treatment delivery, the same breathing-delivery correlation can be reproduced by instructing the patient to breathe following a visually displayed guiding cycle. This method was tested using a computer-simulated deformable phantom and a real lung case. Results show that treatment optimization incorporating motion achieved similar high dose conformality on a mobile target compared with static delivery. The residual motion effects due to imperfect breathing tracking were also analyzed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1576-1586
Number of pages11
JournalMedical physics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2004


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