Treatment Patterns and Overall Survival Outcomes Among Patients Aged 80 yr or Older with High-risk Prostate Cancer

Benjamin W. Fischer-Valuck, Brian C. Baumann, Simon A. Brown, Christopher P. Filson, Aaron Weiss, Ryan Mueller, Yuan Liu, Randall J. Brenneman, Martin Sanda, Jeff M. Michalski, Hiram A. Gay, Yuan James Rao, John G. Pattaras, Ashesh B. Jani, Bruce Hershatter, Sagar A. Patel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Elderly patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) present a therapeutic dilemma of balancing treatment of a potentially lethal malignancy with overtreatment of a cancer that may not threaten life expectancy. Objective: To investigate treatment patterns and overall survival outcomes in this group of patients. Design, setting, and participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. We queried the National Cancer Database for high-risk PCa in patients aged 80 yr or older diagnosed during 2004–2016. Intervention: Eligible patients underwent no treatment following biopsy (ie, observation), androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone, radiation therapy (RT) alone, RT + ADT, or surgery. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Kaplan-Meier, log rank, and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to compare overall survival (OS). Results and limitations: A total of 19 920 men were eligible for analysis, and the most common treatment approach was RT + ADT (7401 patients; 37.2%). Observation and ADT alone declined over time (59.3% in 2004 vs 47.5% in 2016). There was no observed difference in OS between observation and ADT alone (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99–1.09; p = 0.105). Definitive local treatment was associated with improved OS compared with ADT alone (RT alone, HR 0.54, 95% CI, 0.50–0.59, p < 0.0001; ADT + RT, HR 0.48, 95% CI, 0.46–0.50, p < 0.0001; surgery, HR 0.50, 95% CI, 0.42–0.59, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This analysis demonstrates that the use of definitive local therapy, including surgery or RT ± ADT, is increasing and is associated with a 50% reduction in overall mortality compared with observation or ADT alone. While prospective validation is warranted, elderly men with high-risk disease eligible for definitive management should be counseled on the risks, including a possible compromise in OS, with deferring definitive management. Patient summary: Elderly men are more often diagnosed with higher-risk prostate cancer but are less likely to receive curative treatment options than younger men. Our analysis demonstrates that for men ≥80 yr of age with high-risk prostate cancer, definitive local therapy, including surgery or radiation therapy and/or androgen deprivation therapy, is associated with a 50% reduction in overall mortality compared with observation or androgen deprivation therapy alone. We therefore recommend that life expectancy (ie, physiologic age) be taken into account, over chronologic age, and that elderly men with good life expectancy (eg, >5 yr; minimal comorbidity) should be offered definitive, life-prolonging therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-89
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Urology Open Science
Volume37
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2022

Keywords

  • High-risk prostate cancer
  • National Cancer Database
  • Prostate cancer elderly
  • Prostate cancer octogenarians

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