Twenty-seven patients with malignant lymphoma in whom primary chemotherapy had failed and the prognosis was poor were treated with cyclophosphamide, total body irradiation, and transplantation of cryopreserved autologous marrow. The median time to recovery of more than 500 neutrophils per microliter and more than 10,000 platelets per microliter was 18 and 24 days, respectively. Complete remission was achieved in 15 patients (56 per cent), five of whom were in continuous remission at this writing 19 to 71 months after transplantation without further therapy and one of whom was alive in a subsequent remission at 20 months. Fifteen patients died of lymphoma, three of interstitial pneumonitis, two of sepsis, and one of congestive heart failure. This experience shows that intensive therapy and autologous-marrow transplantation can produce prolonged remissions in patients with malignant lymphoma in whom conventional chemotherapy has failed.