Treatment of Cytomegalovirus Anterior Uveitis at a North American Tertiary Center with Oral Valganciclovir

Taniya Bhoopat, Jaskirat S. Takhar, Catherine E. Oldenburg, Jeremy D. Keenan, John A. Gonzales, Todd P. Margolis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose:Cytomegalovirus is an increasingly recognized cause of anterior uveitis. We present clinical features of cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis (CMVAU) and outcomes of oral valganciclovir treatment at a tertiary referral center in North America.Methods:This is a retrospective case series review (2002-2014) of immunocompetent patients with CMVAU treated with valganciclovir 900 mg BID and subsequent maintenance dosing of ≤450 mg BID. Most patients were prescribed topical corticosteroids concurrently. Diagnostic evaluations and clinical features at baseline and follow-up were reviewed. Resolution time, maintenance of quiescence, and adverse events were assessed.Results:Eighteen eyes of 16 patients were included. The mean age of diagnosis was 41 years. At diagnosis, mean best-corrected visual acuity was 0.30 LogMAR and mean intraocular pressure (IOP) was 18.4 mm Hg; 14 eyes (78%) had an active anterior chamber (AC) cell, 8 (44%) had circinate keratic precipitates, and 6 (33%) had iris atrophy. The mean follow-up duration was 48 months. Fourteen eyes of 12 patients were available for the 12-month follow-up; patients demonstrated improvement in best-corrected visual acuity (difference:-0.21 LogMAR, 95% CI-0.33 to-0.09; P = 0.003), AC cell (OR = 0.10, 95% CI 0.02-0.41; P = 0.002), and IOP (difference:-4.21 mm Hg, 95% CI-7.98 to-0.44; P = 0.03) compared with baseline. One patient experienced a serious adverse event likely due to valganciclovir. Thirteen eyes experienced recurrence of inflammation: 7 (54%) on prophylactic dose of valganciclovir and 6 (46%) after stopping.Conclusions:Valganciclovir appears effective and safe for treating CMVAU in this retrospective case series. Long-Term antiviral prophylaxis does not abolish recurrences, although it may possibly reduce their frequency when compared with no prophylaxis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)584-589
Number of pages6
JournalCornea
Volume39
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2020

Keywords

  • anterior uveitis
  • cytomegalovirus
  • safety
  • treatment
  • valganciclovir

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