Translatability of findings from cynomolgus monkey to human suggests a mechanistic role for IL-21 in promoting immunogenicity to an anti-PD-1/IL-21 mutein fusion protein

Mark A. Kroenke, Marta Starcevic Manning, Christina L. Zuch de Zafra, Xinwen Zhang, Kevin D. Cook, Michael Archer, Martijn P. Lolkema, Jin Wang, Sarah Hoofring, Gurleen Saini, Famke Aeffner, Elizabeth Ahern, Elena Garralda Cabanas, Ramaswamy Govindan, Mun Hui, Shalini Gupta, Daniel T. Mytych

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

AMG 256 is a bi-specific, heteroimmunoglobulin molecule with an anti-PD-1 antibody domain and a single IL-21 mutein domain on the C-terminus. Nonclinical studies in cynomolgus monkeys revealed that AMG 256 administration led to the development of immunogenicity-mediated responses and indicated that the IL-21 mutein domain of AMG 256 could enhance the anti-drug antibody response directed toward the monoclonal antibody domain. Anti-AMG 256 IgE were also observed in cynomolgus monkeys. A first-in-human (FIH) study in patients with advanced solid tumors was designed with these risks in mind. AMG 256 elicited ADA in 28 of 33 subjects (84.8%). However, ADA responses were only robust and exposure-impacting at the 2 lowest doses. At mid to high doses, ADA responses remained low magnitude and all subjects maintained exposure, despite most subjects developing ADA. Limited drug-specific IgE were also observed during the FIH study. ADA responses were not associated with any type of adverse event. The AMG 256 program represents a unique case where nonclinical studies informed on the risk of immunogenicity in humans, due to the IL-21-driven nature of the response.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1345473
JournalFrontiers in immunology
Volume15
DOIs
StatePublished - 2024

Keywords

  • IL-21
  • IgE
  • PD-1
  • anti-drug antibodies
  • immunogenicity
  • mutein

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