Unintended outcomes of cancer therapy include ionizing radiation (IR)-induced stem cell depletion, diminished regenerative capacity, and accelerated aging. Stem cells exhibit attenuated DNA damage response (DDR) and are hypersensitive to IR, as compared to differentiated non-stem cells. We performed genomic discovery research to compare stem cells to differentiated cells, which revealed Phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a potential contributor to susceptibility in stem cells. PP2A dephosphorylates pATM, γH2AX, pAkt etc. and is believed to play dual role in regulating DDR and apoptosis. Although studied widely in cancer cells, the role of PP2A in normal stem cell radiosensitivity is unknown. Here we demonstrate that constitutively high expression and radiation induction of PP2A in stem cells plays a role in promoting susceptibility to irradiation. Transient inhibition of PP2A markedly restores DNA repair, inhibits apoptosis, and enhances survival of stem cells, without affecting differentiated non-stem and cancer cells. PP2Ai-mediated stem cell radioprotection was demonstrated in murine embryonic, adult neural, intestinal, and hematopoietic stem cells.