Transcription factor GATA6: A novel marker and putative inducer of ductal metaplasia in biliary atresia

Tea Soini, Marjut Pihlajoki, Noora Andersson, Jouko Lohi, Kari A. Huppert, David A. Rudnick, Stacey S. Huppert, David B. Wilson, Mikko P. Pakarinen, Markku Heikinheimo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Biliary atresia (BA), a neo- natal liver disease, is characterized by obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts with subsequent cholestasis, inflammation, and progressive liver fibrosis. To gain insights into the pathophysiology of BA, we focused attention on GATA6, a transcription factor implicated in biliary development. Early in fetal development GATA6 expression is evident in cholangiocytes and hepatocytes, but by late gestation it is extinguished in hepatocytes. Utilizing a unique set of BA liver samples collected before and after successful portoenterostomy (PE), we found that GATA6 expression is markedly upregulated in hepatocytes of patients with BA compared with healthy and cholestatic disease controls. This upregulation is recapitulated in two murine models simulating bile duct obstruction and intrahepatic bile ductule expansion. GATA6 expression in BA livers correlates with two established negative prognostic indicators (age at PE, degree of intrahepatic bile ductule expansion) and decreases after normalization of serum bilirubin by PE. GATA6 expression in BA livers correlates with expression of known regulators of cholangiocyte differentiation (JAGGED1, HNF1β, and HNF6). These same genes are upregulated after enforced expression of GATA6 in human hepatocyte cell models. In conclusion, GATA6 is a novel marker and a putative driver of hepatocyte-cholangiocyte metaplasia in BA, and its expression in hepatocytes is downregulated after successful PE. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A pathological hallmark in the liver of patients with biliary atresia is ductular reaction, an expansion of new bile ductules that are thought to arise from conversion of mature hepatocytes. Here, we show that transcription factor GATA6 is a marker and potential driver of hepatocyte ductal metaplasia in biliary atresia. Hepatocyte GATA6 expression is elevated in biliary atresia, correlates with bile duct expansion, and decreases after successful portoenterostomy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)G547-G558
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Volume314
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2018

Keywords

  • Cholestasis
  • Ductular reaction
  • Hepatocyte transdifferentiation
  • Transcriptional regulation

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