Calcium-mediated microneme secretion in Toxoplasma gondii is stimulated by contact with host cells, resulting in the discharge of adhesins that mediate attachment. The intracellular source of calcium and the signaling pathway(s) triggering release have not been characterized, prompting our search for mediators of calcium signaling and microneme secretion in T. gondii. We identified two stimuli of microneme secretion, ryanodine and caffeine, which enhanced release of calcium from parasite intracellular stores. Ethanol, a previously characterized trigger of microneme secretion, stimulated an increase in parasite inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate, implying that this second messenger may mediate intracellular calcium release. Consistent with this observation, xestospongin C, an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor antagonist, inhibited microneme secretion and blocked parasite attachment and invasion of host cells. Collectively, these results suggest that T. gondii possess an intracellular calcium release channel with properties of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate/ryanodine receptor superfamily. Intracellular calcium channels, previously studied almost exclusively in multicellular animals, appear to also be critical to the control of parasite calcium during the initial steps of host cell entry.