2 Scopus citations


This paper addresses two key challenges toward an integrated forward error-correcting biosensor based on our previously reported self-assembled quick-response (QR) code. The first challenge involves the choice of the paper substrate for printing and self-assembling the QR code. We have compared four different substrates that includes regular printing paper, Whatman filter paper, nitrocellulose membrane and lab synthesized bacterial cellulose. We report that out of the four substrates bacterial cellulose outperforms the others in terms of probe (gold nanorods) and ink retention capability. The second challenge involves remote activation of the analyte sampling and the QR code self-assembly process. In this paper, we use light as a trigger signal and a graphite layer as a light-absorbing material. The resulting change in temperature due to infrared absorption leads to a temperature gradient that then exerts a diffusive force driving the analyte toward the regions of self-assembly. The working principle has been verified in this paper using assembled biosensor prototypes where we demonstrate higher sample flow rate due to light induced thermal gradients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)452-460
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2018


  • Automatic reagent sampling
  • bacterial cellulose
  • flexible electronics
  • forward error-correcting biosensor
  • lab-on-chip
  • mobile health
  • QR code
  • self-assembly
  • self-powered sensing
  • silver enhancement


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