Total Neoadjuvant Therapy in Rectal Cancer: Multi-center Comparison of Induction Chemotherapy and Long-Course Chemoradiation Versus Short-Course Radiation and Consolidative Chemotherapy

Amber M. Moyer, Jon D. Vogel, Samuel H. Lai, Hyun Kim, Re I. Chin, Marina Moskalenko, Jeffrey R. Olsen, Elisa H. Birnbaum, Matthew L. Silviera, Matthew G. Mutch, Brandon C. Chapman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Total neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced rectal cancer may include induction chemotherapy and chemoradiation or short-course radiotherapy and consolidative chemotherapy. Methods: Patients with clinical stage 2 or 3 rectal cancer who received induction chemotherapy followed by long-course chemoradiation at the University of Colorado (2016–2020) or short-course radiotherapy followed by consolidative chemotherapy at Washington University (2017–2020) were assessed. Results: Eighty-four patients received induction chemotherapy and chemoradiation and 83 received short-course radiotherapy and consolidative chemotherapy. Among patients with complete re-staging evaluation, clinical complete response rates were similar, 49% (18/37) and 53% (44/83), respectively (p = 0.659). In the induction chemotherapy and chemoradiation group, 80% (n = 67) underwent surgery and 28% (n = 19) achieved a pathologic complete response. In the short-course radiotherapy and consolidative chemotherapy group, 44 (53%) patients underwent surgery and 11% (n = 5) had a pathologic complete response. Overall, a complete response was observed in 43% (n = 36) of patients who received induction chemotherapy and chemoradiation compared to 53% (n = 44) who received short-course radiotherapy and consolidative chemotherapy (p = 0.189). Perioperative outcomes were similar in patients who received induction chemotherapy and chemoradiation compared to short-course radiotherapy and consolidative chemotherapy: intraoperative complications (2% vs 7%), complete mesorectal specimen (85% vs 84%), anastomotic leak (9% vs 7%), organ/space infection (9% vs 5%), readmission (19% vs 21%), and reoperation (8% vs 9%), respectively (all p > 0.05). Conclusions: In patients with clinical stage 2 or 3 rectal cancer, total neoadjuvant therapy with either induction chemotherapy and chemoradiation or short-course radiotherapy followed by consolidative chemotherapy were associated with similar perioperative morbidity and complete response rates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)980-989
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Volume27
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2023

Keywords

  • Complete response
  • Rectal cancer
  • Total neoadjuvant therapy

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