Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that play a central role in the development and function of the immune system. TLR signaling promotes the earliest emergence of hematopoietic cells during development, and thereafter influences the fate and function of both primitive and effector immune cell types. Aberrant TLR signaling is associated with hematopoietic and immune system dysfunction, and both loss-and gain-of-function variants in TLR signaling-associated genes have been linked to specific infection susceptibilities and immune defects. Herein, we will review the role of TLR signaling in immune system development and the growing number of heritable defects in TLR signaling that lead to inborn errors of immunity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1374
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Immune system
  • Inborn errors of immunity
  • TLR


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