Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) modulates cytosolic calcium in multiple cells. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized STIM1 and plasma membrane (PM)-localized ORAI1 are two main components of SOCE. STIM1:ORAI1 association requires STIM1 oligomerization, its re-distribution to ER-PM junctions, and puncta formation. However, little is known about the negative regulation of these steps to prevent calcium overload. Here, we identified Tmem178 as a negative modulator of STIM1 puncta formation in myeloid cells. Using site-directed mutagenesis, co-immunoprecipitation assays and FRET imaging, we determined that Tmem178:STIM1 association occurs via their transmembrane motifs. Mutants that increase Tmem178:STIM1 association reduce STIM1 puncta formation, SOCE activation, impair inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and osteoclastogenesis. Mutants that reduce Tmem178:STIM1 association reverse these effects. Furthermore, exposure to plasma from arthritic patients decreases Tmem178 expression, enhances SOCE activation and cytoplasmic calcium. In conclusion, Tmem178 modulates the rate-limiting step of STIM1 puncta formation and therefore controls SOCE in inflammatory conditions.
- Macrophage activation