The Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is one of the key sentries of the host innate immune system that senses DNAs derived from microbes or damaged cells. Engagement of TLR9 in immune cells triggers the host inflammatory response to eliminate and clear invading microbes or dead tissues. On this basis, ligation of TLR9 in immune cells with nucleic acid agonist has been attempted as an anticancer strategy in various cancer types, so far with mixed results and much room to improve. On the other hand, ample preclinical evidence also indicates that overexpression or aberrant activation of TLR9 in cancer cells may be detrimental, raising caution in utilizing TLR9 agonists in cancer treatment and need for more detailed mechanistic studies to clearly delineate the cancer- and cell-type specific role of TLR9.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCancer Therapeutic Targets
PublisherSpringer New York
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781441907172
ISBN (Print)9781441907165
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017


  • Adaptor protein MyD88
  • Agatolimod
  • Agonistic stimulation
  • Assessment
  • CPG 7909
  • Chemotherapy
  • CpG ODN
  • CpG ODNs
  • CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs)
  • Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)
  • Histological features
  • IMO2055
  • Inflammatory mediators
  • ODN 2006
  • PF-3512676
  • Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
  • Synthetic CpG ODN
  • TLR9
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs)


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