IFN-I are pleiotropic cytokines that impact innate and adaptive immune responses. In this article, we discuss TLR7/9 versus TLR3/MDA5 signaling in antiviral responses and diabetes. pDCs are thought to have a critical role in antiviral defense because of their ability to rapidly secrete large amounts of IFN-I through TLR7/9 signaling. A recent study demonstrates that although pDCs are a source of IFN-I in vivo, their overall contribution to viral containment is limited and time-dependent, such that additional cellular sources of IFN-I are required to fully control viral infections. dsRNA sensors, such as TLR3 and MDA5, provide another important trigger for antiviral IFN-I responses, which can be exploited to enhance immune responses to vaccines. In the absence of infection, IFN-I production by pDCs or from signaling through dsRNA sensors has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as diabetes. However, recent data demonstrate that IFN-I production via TLR3 and MDA5 is critical to counter diabetes caused by a virus with preferential tropism for pancreatic β-cells. This highlights the complexity of the host antiviral response and how multiple cellular and molecular components balance protective versus pathological responses.
- Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5
- Plasmacytoid dendritic cell
- Toll-like receptor 3