There is accumulating evidence suggesting that toll-like receptor (TLR) signals play an important role in the regulation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). TLR7/8 stimulation induces the myeloid differentiation of normal HSPCs and acute myeloid leukemia cells. However, the in vivo effect of TLR7/8 agonists on hematopoiesis is largely unknown. Here, we show that, similar to TLR4 and TLR2, treatment with the TLR7/8 agonist R848 induces an expansion of phenotypic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with reduced repopulating potential and HSPC mobilization. In contrast to chronic TLR4 stimulation, treatment with R848 for 5 days did not induce a significant increase in myeloid-biased HSCs. Treatment with R848 results in a significant increase in classic dendritic cells (DCs) in the bone marrow, but a decrease in common dendritic cell progenitors and pre-DCs. Phenotypic analysis of DCs revealed that R848 treatment is associated with altered expression of certain chemokines, activation markers, and migratory receptors. Together, these data indicate that systemic administration of a TLR7/8 agonist has unique effects on hematopoiesis, including the expansion of DCs in the bone marrow, that might have clinical relevance to augment responses to certain immunotherapies, such as cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint blockade.