The Toll-like receptors 7 and 8 as integral component of the host innate immune system are endosomally-located receptors that sense single-stranded RNAs derived from microbes or damaged cells. Engagement of these receptors triggers the host inflammatory response to eliminate and clear invading microbes or dead tissues. Harnessing the protective function of these receptors in immune cells has proven to be successful in treatment of superficial bladder and skin cancers. However, preclinical evidence suggests that aberrant activation of these TLRs in cancer cells or tumor-supporting cells can potentially accelerate cancer growth. Therefore, much work is needed to clearly delineate the role of these TLRs in different cancer, as well as each different cell-types in the tumor microenvironment, to develop a therapeutic strategies that have the highest chance of success in clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCancer Therapeutic Targets
PublisherSpringer New York
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781441907172
ISBN (Print)9781441907165
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017


  • Actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma
  • Aldara→
  • Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)
  • Dendritic cells
  • Imiquimod
  • Innate immunity
  • Resiquimod
  • TLR7
  • TLR7. See TLR7
  • TLR8. See TLR7
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
  • Topical imiquimod
  • ssRNA


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