Objective: To identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality in neonates and children undergoing continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) monitoring in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study in patients from birth to 21 years of age who underwent clinically indicated cEEG in the ICU from 2011 to 2013. The main outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. Results: Six-hundred and twenty-five patients (54.2% male) met eligibility criteria, of whom 211 were neonates (55% male, 24.8% premature) and 414 were pediatric patients (53.9% male). Electrographic seizures occurred in 176 patients (28.2%) and status epilepticus (SE) occurred in 20 (11.4%). The time from ICU admission to cEEG initiation was 16.7 (5.1–94.4) h. Eighty-nine patients (14.2%) (30 [14.2%] neonates, and 59 [14.3%] pediatric patients) died in the hospital. In neonates—after controlling for gender and prematurity—independent factors associated with mortality were prematurity (odds ratio [OR] 2.63. 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–6.5, p = 0.037), presence of status epilepticus (SE); OR 8.82, 95% CI 1.74–44.57, p = 0.008), and time from ICU admission to initiation of cEEG (OR 1.002, 95% CI 1.001–1.004 per hour, p = 0.008]. In pediatric patients—after controlling for gender and age—independent factors associated with mortality were the absence of seizures factors associated with mortality were absence of seizures (OR = 4.3, (95% CI: 1.5–12.4), p = 0.007), the presence of SE (OR 7.76, 95% CI 1.47–40.91, p = 0.016), and the time from ICU admission to initiation of cEEG (OR 1.001, 95% CI 1.0002–1.001, per hour, p = 0.005]. Significance: Both presence of electrographic SE and time from ICU admission to cEEG initiation were independent factors associated with mortality in neonates and pediatric patients with cEEG in the ICU.
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