Time to change the blind men and the elephant approach to Parkinson disease?

Brad A. Racette, Allison W. Willis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is associated with substantial morbidity and early mortality. Disease-related costs exceed 10 billion, not including medications, out-of-pocket expenses, or societal costs. Symptomatic treatment with levodopa, which has been available for over 30 years, and advanced therapies such as deep brain stimulation improve outcomes. Yet most new medications for PD provide a therapeutic benefit that is relatively modest compared to the benefits from levodopa. Despite dozens of neuroprotective clinical trials, there are no medications proven to slow the progression of the disease. Given these limitations, we provide evidence of the potential public health impact of a research agenda that emphasizes identification of risk factors to reduce disease burden through exposure mitigation. In addition, we emphasize health care policy that focuses on increasing health care expenditures for neurologic evaluation andmanagement services to increase access to specialists to improve disease outcomes and reduce costs through better disease management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)190-196
Number of pages7
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015


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