Three-dimensional printing physiology laboratory technology

Matthew S. Sulkin, Emily Widder, Connie Shao, Katherine M. Holzem, Christopher Gloschat, Sarah R. Gutbrod, Igor R. Efimov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Since its inception in 19th-century Germany, the physiology laboratory has been a complex and expensive research enterprise involving experts in various fields of science and engineering. Physiology research has been critically dependent on cutting-edge technological support of mechanical, electrical, optical, and more recently computer engineers. Evolution of modern experimental equipment is constrained by lack of direct communication between the physiological community and industry producing this equipment. Fortunately, recent advances in open source technologies, including three-dimensional printing, open source hardware and software, present an exciting opportunity to bring the design and development of research instrumentation to the end user, i.e., life scientists. Here we provide an overview on how to develop customized, cost-effective experimental equipment for physiology laboratories.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)H1569-H1573
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Dec 1 2013


  • 3-D printing
  • Heart physiology
  • Open source manufacturing
  • Optical mapping


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