NK cells are innate lymphoid cells, which play a key role in the immune response to cancer and pathogens and participate in the shaping of adaptive immunity. NK cells engage in a complex bidirectional interaction with myelomonocytic cells. In particular, macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils promote differentiation and effector function of NK cells and, on the other hand, myelomonocytic cells express triggers of checkpoint blockade (eg PD-L1) and other immunosuppressive molecules, which negatively regulate NK cell function. In addition, NK cells express high levels of IL-1R8, which acts as a checkpoint for IL-18 driven differentiation and activation of NK cells. Evidence suggests that targeting the myeloid cell-NK cell crosstalk unleashes effective anti-tumour and anti-viral resistance.