A Vietnam Era (1964-1975) Twin Registry of American male-male veterans born between 1939 and 1955 has been developed to provide a study sample for research evaluating the impact of Vietnam service on the medical and psychosocial aspects of health. In preparation for developing the Registry, several alternative sources of twins and methods for identifying twins were investigated. A computerized database of veterans discharged from the military after 1967 was selected as the source because it contains about 50% of the total Vietnam era veteran population, is reasonably unbiased, and provides a feasible method for identifying twins. Twins were identified using an algorithm which involved matching entries on the database for same last name, different first name, same date of birth, and similar social security number. Twin status was confirmed by review of military records. The registry, now complete, is composed of 7,400 twin pairs. It will be an important resource for future research projects.