Gene therapy involves identifying a gene of interest and then manipulating the expression of this gene through a variety of techniques. Here we specifically address gene therapy's role in cancer research. This paper will encompass thoroughly investigated techniques such as cancer vaccines and suicide gene therapy and the latest advancements in and applications of these techniques. It will also cover newer techniques such as Antisense Oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs and how these technologies are being developed and used. The use of gene therapy continues to expand in cancer research and has an integral role in the advancement of cancer treatment.