The use of botulinum toxin therapy for lower-extremity spasticity in children with cerebral palsy.

Susan R. Criswell, Beth E. Crowner, Brad A. Racette

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Hypertonicity is a leading cause of disability for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Botulinum toxin A (BTA) chemically denervates muscle tissue and is commonly used in the management of lower-extremity hypertonicity in children with CP because of its focal effects and wide safety margin. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that BTA injections in the ankle flexors, hamstrings, and adductors reduce spasticity and result in improved passive and active range of motion. In other studies, improvements in gait and measurements of functional outcome were found in appropriately selected children who had been injected with BTA. A multidisciplinary treatment approach that includes physical therapists, occupational therapists, orthotists, neurologists, physicians with expertise in performing botulinum toxin injections, orthopedic surgeons, and neurosurgeons is critical to optimize care in children with lower-extremity tone due to CP. In this paper, the authors propose treatment algorithms based on clinical presentation, detailed dosing, and technical information to optimize the treatment of these children. With a multidisciplinary approach, children with lower-extremity hypertonicity due to CP can experience improvements in muscle tone and function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e1
JournalNeurosurgical focus
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2006


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