The use of an inferior pennant flap during unilateral cleft lip repair improves lip height symmetry

Aaron J. Russell, Kamlesh B. Patel, Gary B. Skolnick, Albert S. Woo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: To improve the rotation of Cupid's bow and achieve sufficient vertical lip height, several variations of the Millard rotation-advancement have incorporated a small laterally based triangular flap above the cutaneous roll. This study uses three-dimensional photogrammetry to evaluate the outcomes of unilateral cleft lip repairs performed with and without pennant flaps. Methods: Three-dimensional photographs were analyzed to assess postoperative lip height asymmetry in 90 unilateral cleft lip patients (58 complete and 32 incomplete) treated between 2001 and 2012. Cleft lip repairs were performed by three pediatric cleft surgeons using different techniques. Thirty-nine of 90 procedures (43 percent) used an inferiorly placed triangular flap. All patients were photographed at least 9 months postoperatively (mean, 4.2 years). Lip height asymmetry was based on the vertical distances from the subnasale to the peaks of Cupid's bow. Results: Regression analysis revealed that the use of a pennant flap was a significant predictor of postoperative lip height asymmetry (β = 4.2 percent, p = 0.015). The surgeon performing the repair was also a significant factor in patients with complete cleft lips (β = 3.6 percent, p = 0.005). All three surgeons achieved greater lip height symmetry when a pennant flap was performed. Conclusions: The results of unilateral cleft lip repairs are affected by both the surgeon and the surgical technique. Procedures that used a pennant flap showed better philtral height symmetry than nonpennant repairs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1046-1053
Number of pages8
JournalPlastic and reconstructive surgery
Volume136
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 27 2015

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