The synergistic relationship between estimated GFR and microalbuminuria in predicting long-term progression to ESRD or death in patients with diabetes: Results from the kidney early evaluation program (KEEP)

Amit P. Amin, Adam T. Whaley-Connell, Suying Li, Shu Cheng Chen, Peter A. McCullough, Mikhail N. Kosiborod

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease may complicate diabetes, often manifesting with reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), albuminuria, or both. Although greater albuminuria and lower estimated GFR both predict adverse prognosis, whether a synergistic prognostic interaction occurs in patients with diabetes has not been defined in a large national cohort study. Methods: We used 2000-2011 data from the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) for 42,761 participants with diabetes. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariable Cox regression were used to ascertain the association of estimated GFR, albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), and their interaction on all-cause mortality and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at a median 4 years of follow-up. Results: Of 42,761 participants with diabetes, 8,618 (20.2%) had estimated GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, 7,715 (18.0%) had ACR >30 mg/g, and 2,641 (6.2%) had both. The unadjusted incidence (per 1,000 person-years) of all-cause mortality increased from 3.1 (95% CI, 2.4-3.8) in participants with estimated GFR ≥105 mL/min/1.73 m2 and no albuminuria to 73.7 (95% CI, 54.9-92.5) in participants with estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and macroalbuminuria (P < 0.001). Progression to ESRD likewise increased from 0.2 (95% CI, 0-0.4) to 220.4 (95% CI, 177.2-263.6) per 1,000 person-years (P < 0.001). After adjustment for confounders, both estimated GFR and albuminuria were associated independently with mortality and progression to ESRD, with a strong synergistic interaction (P for interaction < 0.001); estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and macroalbuminuria together were associated with a 5-fold higher risk of mortality and a more than 1,000-fold higher risk of progression to ESRD (compared with patients with estimated GFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and ACR <30 mg/g; P < 0.001 for both outcomes). Conclusions: In this large cohort of diabetic KEEP participants with more than 170,000 person-years of follow-up, both estimated GFR and albuminuria were associated independently with mortality and progression to ESRD, with a strong synergistic interaction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S12-S23
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Volume61
Issue number4 SUPPL.2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2013

Keywords

  • Albuminuria
  • chronic kidney disease
  • diabetes mellitus
  • end-stage renal disease
  • glomerular filtration rate
  • mortality
  • nonalbuminuric chronic kidney disease

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