The STOP COVID 2 Study: Fluvoxamine vs Placebo for Outpatients with Symptomatic COVID-19, a Fully Remote Randomized Controlled Trial

Angela M. Reiersen, Caline Mattar, Rachel A. Bender Ignacio, David R. Boulware, Todd C. Lee, Rachel Hess, Alexander J. Lankowski, Emily G. McDonald, J. Philip Miller, William G. Powderly, Matthew F. Pullen, Jeffrey T. Rado, Michael W. Rich, Joshua T. Schiffer, Julie Schweiger, Adam M. Spivak, Angela Stevens, Simone N. Vigod, Payal Agarwal, Lei YangMichael Yingling, Torie R. Gettinger, Charles F. Zorumski, Eric J. Lenze

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2 Scopus citations


Background: Prior randomized clinical trials have reported benefit of fluvoxamine ≥200 mg/d vs placebo for patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fully remote multisite clinical trial evaluated whether fluvoxamine prevents clinical deterioration in higher-risk outpatients with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Between December 2020 and May 2021, nonhospitalized US and Canadian participants with confirmed symptomatic infection received fluvoxamine (50 mg on day 1, 100 mg twice daily thereafter) or placebo for 15 days. The primary modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population included participants who started the intervention within 7 days of symptom onset with a baseline oxygen saturation ≥92%. The primary outcome was clinical deterioration within 15 days of randomization, defined as having both (1) shortness of breath (severity ≥4 on a 0-10 scale or requiring hospitalization) and (2) oxygen saturation <92% on room air or need for supplemental oxygen. Results: A total of 547 participants were randomized and met mITT criteria (n = 272 fluvoxamine, n = 275 placebo). The Data Safety Monitoring Board recommended stopping early for futility related to lower-than-predicted event rates and declining accrual concurrent with vaccine availability in the United States and Canada. Clinical deterioration occurred in 13 (4.8%) participants in the fluvoxamine group and 15 (5.5%) participants in the placebo group (absolute difference at day 15, 0.68%; 95% CI, -3.0% to 4.4%; log-rank P =. 91). Conclusions: This trial did not find fluvoxamine efficacious in preventing clinical deterioration in unvaccinated outpatients with symptomatic COVID-19. It was stopped early and underpowered due to low primary outcome rates. Clinical Trials Registration: Identifier: NCT04668950.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberofad419
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2023


  • COVID-19
  • clinical trial
  • fluvoxamine
  • fully remote
  • sigma1 receptor agonist


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