The snoRNA target of t(4;14) in multiple myeloma regulates ribosome biogenesis

Vanessa Oliveira, Nitin Mahajan, Melissa L. Bates, Chakrapani Tripathi, Kyusik Q. Kim, Hani S. Zaher, Leonard B. Maggi, Michael H. Tomasson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The orphan small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) ACA11 is overexpressed as a result of the t(4;14) chromosomal translocation in multiple myeloma (MM), increases reactive oxygen species, and drives cell proliferation. Like other snoRNAs, ACA11 is predominantly localized to a sub-nuclear organelle, the nucleolus. We hypothesized that increased ACA11 expression would increase ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis. We found that ACA11 overexpression in MM cells increased nucleolar area and number as well as argyrophilic nuclear organizing regions (AgNORs). Supporting these data, samples from t(4;14)-positive patients had higher AgNORs scores than t(4;14)-negative samples. ACA11 also upregulated ribosome production, pre-47S rRNA synthesis, and protein synthesis in a ROS-dependent manner. Lastly, ACA11 overexpression enhanced the response to proteasome inhibitor in MM cells, while no effect was found in response to high doses of melphalan. Together, these data demonstrate that ACA11 stimulates ribosome biogenesis and influences responses to chemotherapy. ACA11 may be a useful target to individualize the treatment for t(4;14)-positive myeloma patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)404-414
Number of pages11
JournalFASEB BioAdvances
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2019


  • chromosomal translocation
  • hematological malignancy
  • protein synthesis
  • reactive oxygen species


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