The second "time-out": A surgical safety checklist for lengthy robotic surgeries

Joseph B. Song, Goutham Vemana, Jonathan M. Mobley, Sam B. Bhayani

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Robotic surgeries of long duration are associated with both increased risks to patients as well as distinct challenges for care providers. We propose a surgical checklist, to be completed during a second " time-out" , aimed at reducing peri-operative complications and addressing obstacles presented by lengthy robotic surgeries. A review of the literature was performed to identify the most common complications of robotic surgeries with extended operative times. A surgical checklist was developed with the goal of addressing these issues and maximizing patient safety. Extended operative times during robotic surgery increase patient risk for position-related complications and other adverse events. These cases also raise concerns for surgical, anesthesia, and nursing staff which are less common in shorter, non-robotic operations. Key elements of the checklist were designed to coordinate operative staff in verifying patient safety while addressing the unique concerns within each specialty. As robotic surgery is increasingly utilized, operations with long surgical times may become more common due to increased case complexity and surgeons overcoming the learning curve. A standardized surgical checklist, conducted three to four hours after the start of surgery, may enhance perioperative patient safety and quality of care.

Original languageEnglish
Article number19
JournalPatient Safety in Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 3 2013


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