The safety of obstetrical ultrasound: A review

Laura E. Houston, Anthony O. Odibo, George A. Macones

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

23 Scopus citations


Ultrasound is a commonly employed imaging modality in obstetrics and is generally regarded as safe to the fetus. Current ultrasound technology, however, has significantly higher output potential than older machines used in most clinical studies, and the safety profile for the increasing use of Doppler, 3-dimensional (D) and 4-D ultrasound with modern machines is unknown. This article reviews the current status of ultrasound safety within obstetrics, including proposed mechanisms of harm, existing scientific and clinical evidence regarding those mechanisms, and considerations of safety for the clinical user.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1204-1212
Number of pages9
JournalPrenatal Diagnosis
Issue number13
StatePublished - Dec 1 2009


  • Mechanical effects
  • Obstetrical ultrasound safety
  • Output display standard
  • Thermal effects

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    Houston, L. E., Odibo, A. O., & Macones, G. A. (2009). The safety of obstetrical ultrasound: A review. Prenatal Diagnosis, 29(13), 1204-1212.