Learning Objectives: After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the basic fundamentals of conscious sedation and deep sedation techniques. 2. Describe the basic principles of effective local anesthesia, as well as the "wide awake approach" and monitored anesthesia care. 3. Describe current methods for achieving postoperative pain control. 4. Evaluate and manage postoperative nausea and vomiting. SUMMARY: This article reviews the basic fundamentals of sedational anesthetic techniques. In addition, current concepts on local anesthesia administration are reviewed, including a description of newer techniques to allow for wide awake surgery. A brief review of postoperative pain management, and the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting, is also included.