Measures of placental dysfunction, including maternal serum analytes and Doppler studies, have been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes, although the predictive ability of any single one is poor. Improved knowledge of the multifactorial nature of many of the adverse outcomes of pregnancy has sparked interest in the use of multi-parameter models that combine maternal serum analytes with measures of placental structure and blood flow. The combination of various first-trimester and second-trimester analytes and uterine artery Doppler screening show promise as potential screening tools, but large prospective studies are needed to further define their role in clinical practice.
- Intrauterine growth restriction
- Serum analytes