117 Scopus citations


The role of craniofacial surgical techniques and immediate bone grafting in the management of complex craniofacial trauma has been reviewed. Four hundred and one patients with complex facial injuries have been treated. Two hundred and forty-one primary bone and cartilage grafts have been performed in 66 patients. Complex facial injuries should be managed by direct exposure, reduction, and fixation of all fractures utilizing interfragmentary wiring. Very comminuted or absent bone is replaced by immediate bone grafting, producing a stable skeleton without the need for external fixation devices. Associated mandibular fractures are managed with rigid internal fixation utilizing A-O technique. Results of immediate bone grafting have been excellent, and complications are rare. All deformities should be corrected, whenever possible, during the initial operation. This onestage reconstruction of even the most complex facial injuries will prevent severe postoperative traumatic deformity and disability that may be extremely difficult or impossible to correct secondarily.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-24
Number of pages8
JournalPlastic and reconstructive surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1985


Dive into the research topics of 'The role of primary bone grafting in complex craniomaxillofacial trauma'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this