The gut is host to a diverse array of microbiota that constitute a complex ecological system crucial to human physiology. Disruptors to the normal host microbiota, such as antimicrobials, can cause a loss of species diversity in the gut, reducing its ability to resist colonization by invading pathogens and potentially leading to colonization with antimicrobial resistant organisms (AROs). ARO negatively impact gut health by disrupting the usual heterogeneity of gut microbiota and have the potential to cause systemic disease. In recent years, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been increasingly explored in the management of specific disease states such as Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Promising data from management of CDI has led to considerable interest in understanding the role of therapeutics to restore the gut microbiota to a healthy state. This review aims to discuss key studies that highlight the current landscape, and explore existing clinical evidence, for the use of FMT and microbiome-based therapeutics in combating intestinal colonization with ARO. We also explore potential future directions of such therapeutics and discuss unaddressed needs in this field that merit further investigation.
- Antimicrobial-resistant organisms
- Fecal microbiota transplantation
- Gut health
- Microbiome-based therapeutics