Background After massive small bowel resection (SBR), a postoperative diet high in fat is associated with enhanced villus growth. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the quantity and composition of enteral fat in structural and metabolic changes after SBR. Methods C57/Bl6 mice underwent a 50% proximal SBR. Mice were then randomized to receive a low-fat diet (12% kcal fat), medium-fat diet (44% kcal fat), or high-fat diet (HFD; 71% kcal fat) ad libitum. In a separate experiment, mice underwent 50% proximal SBR and then were randomized to liquid diets of 42% kcal of fat in which the fat was composed of menhaden oil, milk fat, or olive oil. After 2 weeks, mice underwent body composition analysis and the small intestine was harvested. Results Mice that ingested the greatest amount of enteral fat (HFD) had the greatest percent lean mass. When the effects of the different kinds of enteral fat were analyzed, mice that consumed menhaden oil had the greatest percent lean mass with the greatest overall retention of preoperative weight. Conclusion These findings suggest that enteral fat enriched in omega-3 fatty acids may offer clinically relevant metabolic advantages for patients with short gut syndrome.