It is unclear if surveillance for postmenopausal women with medically inoperable stage 1 endometrial cancer (EC) should differ depending on their management strategy. Thus, we investigated the utility of surveillance endometrial sampling among 53 postmenopausal women with medically inoperable, clinical stage I, grade 1 endometrioid EC who received either progestin therapy or radiation between 2009 and 2018, at a single academic institution. Frequency and results of endometrial sampling, as well as recurrence and survival rates were studied. Of 53 patients, 18 (34.0%) received progestin therapy and 35 (66.0%) radiation. Medically managed patients were treated with megestrol acetate (27.7%), a levonorgestrel intrauterine device (27.7%), or both (44.4%). Radiated patients were mostly treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy only (77.1%). Surveillance endometrial sampling (median procedures = 4, range 1–10) was strictly adhered to among all patients who received progestin therapy, but infrequently (6/35, 17.1%) performed among radiated patients, yielding no positive results. Three recurrences occurred over the median follow-up of 38 months. Two (11%) women in the progestin therapy group recurred locally and were diagnosed by endometrial sampling. One (3%) patient in the radiation group recurred distally in the lung 25.3 months after completing brachytherapy. We conclude that appropriate surveillance for women with medically inoperable, clinical stage I, grade 1 EC depends on the management strategy. For those treated with progestins, surveillance with endometrial sampling every 3–6 months can reveal local recurrence. However, given the excellent local control after radiation, endometrial sampling may not be warranted for women treated with definitive radiation.
- Endometrial cancer surveillance
- Endometrial sampling
- Medically inoperable