Introduction: Nephrolithiasis is common after malabsorptive bariatric surgery; however, the comparative risk of stone formation after different bariatric surgeries remains unclear. We seek to compare the risk of stone diagnosis and stone procedure after gastric banding (GB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), short-limb Roux-en-Y (SLRY), long-limb Roux-en-Y (LLRY), and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPDDS). Patients and Methods: Using an administrative database, we retrospectively identified 116,304 patients in the United States, who received bariatric surgery between 2007 and 2014, did not have a known kidney stone diagnosis before surgery, and were enrolled in the database for at least 1 year before and after their bariatric surgery. We used diagnosis and procedural codes to identify comorbidities and events of interest. Our primary analysis was performed with extended Cox proportional hazards models using time to stone diagnosis and time to stone procedure as outcomes. Results: The adjusted hazard ratio of new stone diagnosis from 1 to 36 months, compared to GB, was 4.54 for BPDDS (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.66-5.62), 2.12 for LLRY (95% CI 1.74-2.58), 2.15 for SLRY (95% CI 2.02-2.29), and 1.35 for SG (95% CI 1.25-1.46). Similar results were observed for risk of stone diagnosis from 36 to 60 months, and for risk of stone removal procedure. Male sex was associated with an overall 1.63-fold increased risk of new stone diagnosis (95% CI 1.55-1.72). Conclusions: BPDDS was associated with a greater risk of stone diagnosis and stone procedures than SLRY and LLRY, which were associated with a greater risk than restrictive procedures. Nephrolithiasis is more common after more malabsorptive bariatric surgeries, with a much greater risk observed after BPDDS and for male patients.
- bariatric surgery
- kidney stones