The purpose of this chapter is to review the methodology and advances that have revealed conserved signaling proteins that are localized in the 9+2 ciliary axoneme for regulating motility. Diverse experimental systems have revealed that ciliary and eukaryotic flagellar motility is regulated by second messengers including calcium, pH, and cyclic nucleotides. In addition, recent advances in in vitro functional studies, taking advantage of isolated axonemes, pharmacological approaches, and biochemical analysis of axonemes have demonstrated that otherwise ubiquitous, conserved protein kinases and phosphatases are transported to and anchored in the axoneme. Here, we focus on the functional/pharmacological, genetic, and biochemical approaches in the model genetic system Chlamydomonas that have revealed highly conserved kinases, anchoring proteins (e.g., A-kinase anchoring proteins), and phosphatases that are physically located in the axoneme where they play a direct role in control of motility. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.