The internal reliability as well as structural, convergent, and divergent validity of the Temperament and Character Inventory, brief 140-item version (TCI-140) in Hebrew were examined. The TCI-140 was translated, independently backtranslated, and revised. A total of 1102 community volunteers, over the age of 40, completed the TCI-140 and measures of emotional function, smoking, physical and sexual activity, medical diagnoses, and medical family history. Structural validity and internal reliability were assessed by scale reliability and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); convergent and discriminant validity by correlation with measures of emotional function and health behavior. The temperament trait of Harm Avoidance correlated positively with negative emotion and Alexithymia; and negatively with positive affect, well-being, subjective health assessment, and social support, while the reverse was true for Reward Dependence. The TCI character traits of Self-Directedness and Cooperation were correlated with better subjective feeling and more health behavior. The CFA for Temperament did not support the theoretical and empirical structure found for the English version; the CFA for character gave strong confirmation to the theoretical and empirical structure. The TCI-140 in Hebrew will be useful in assessing normal personality, as well as issues of psychopathology and health.