The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of human herpesvirus (HHV)-7 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia and the effects of oral and intravenous (iv) ganciclovir in renal transplant recipients at risk for CMV. Stored lysates from peripheral blood leukocytes from 92 patients, who had been previously analyzed for CMV viremia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 12 weeks after transplantation, were analyzed for HHV-7 viremia. Baseline and peak prevalences of HHV-7 viremia were 22% and 54%, respectively (P < .0001). Eighty-two (89%) of 92 patients had at least 1 positive PCR for HHV-7. Oral ganciclovir and treatment with iv ganciclovir had no effect on the prevalence of HHV-7 viremia. In contrast, CMV was almost completely suppressed in patients who received oral ganciclovir, and when present, CMV responded to iv therapy. These results indicate that HHV-7 is resistant to ganciclovir at levels that were effective for prevention and treatment of CMV.