Acute aortic syndromes are a distinct group of pathologies involving the wall of the aorta that present acutely and can be potentially fatal unless treated in a timely fashion. The syndrome is dominated by aortic dissections, which comprise ≥95% of all such presentations. Those involving the ascending aorta are particularly lethal and require specific and early surgical treatment compared to dissections involving other parts of the aorta. The surgical repair of an ascending aortic dissection presents multiple challenges to the anesthesiologist. Thoughtful management throughout the perioperative period is critical for minimizing the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of the perioperative management of patients presenting for the surgical repair of an ascending aortic dissection. Preoperative discussion focuses on assessment, hemodynamic management, and risk stratification. The intraoperative section includes an overview of anesthetic management, transesophageal echocardiographic assessment, and coagulopathy, as well as surgical considerations that may influence anesthetic management.