Postzygotic mutations (PZMs) begin to accrue in the human genome immediately after fertilization, but how and when PZMs affect development and lifetime health remain unclear. To study the origins and functional consequences of PZMs, we generated a multitissue atlas of PZMs spanning 54 tissue and cell types from 948 donors. Nearly half the variation in mutation burden among tissue samples can be explained by measured technical and biological effects, and 9% can be attributed to donor-specific effects. Through phylogenetic reconstruction of PZMs, we found that their type and predicted functional impact vary during prenatal development, across tissues, and through the germ cell life cycle. Thus, methods for interpreting effects across the body and the life span are needed to fully understand the consequences of genetic variants.