The Oberg-Manske-Tonkin (OMT) Classification of Congenital Upper Extremities: Update for 2020

Charles A. Goldfarb, Marybeth Ezaki, Lindley B. Wall, Wee L. Lam, Kerby C. Oberg

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


A new classification for congenital upper-extremity anomalies was first published in 2010. It has come to be known as the OMT classification highlighting the thought leaders behind it: Kerby Oberg, Paul Manske, and Michael Tonkin. Based on a dysmorphology framework, the OMT has been adopted by the International Federation of Society for Surgery of the Hand and surgeons who treat congenital upper-extremity anomalies. As predicted in the first publication, updates will be necessary based on an improved understanding of morphogenesis; the first update was in 2014 and this represents the second update to the original OMT classification. We carefully reviewed all aspects of the OMT classification, its current stratification, and updated literature on the developmental basis of limb anomalies. We also considered the clinical usefulness and challenges of the classification through discussions with stakeholders and those who care for patients with congenital upper-limb anomalies. These factors guided the current modifications of the OMT classification. In providing the updated classification, we provide the rationale for these changes. The updated OMT classification is by no means final. As our understanding of congenital anomalies progresses, we anticipate subsequent updates in the years to come.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)542-547
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2020


  • Classification
  • OMT
  • Oberg–Manske–Tonkin
  • congenital anomaly
  • update


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