Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) defines a triad of interrelated abnormalities of serum biochemistry, bone and the vasculature associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The new kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines define the quality and depth of evidence supporting therapeutic intervention in CKD-MBD. They also highlight where patient management decisions lack a strong evidence base. Expert interpretation of the guidelines, along with informed opinion, where evidence is weak, may help develop effective clinical practice. The body of evidence linking poor bone health and reservoir function (the ability of bone to buffer calcium and phosphorus) with vascular calcification and cardiovascular outcomes is growing. Treating renal bone disease should be one of the primary aims of therapy for CKD. Evaluation of the biochemical parameters of CKD-MBD (primarily phosphorus, calcium, parathyroid hormone and vitaminD levels) as early as CKD Stage 3, and an assessment of bone status (by the best means available), should be used to guide treatment decisions. The adverse effects of high phosphorus intake relative to renal clearance (including stimulation of hyperparathyroidism) precede hyperphosphatemia, which presents late in CKD. Early reduction of phosphorus load may ameliorate these adverse effects. Evidence that calcium load may influence progression of vascular calcification with effects on mortality should also be considered when choosing the type and dose of phosphate binder to be used. The risks, benefits, and strength of evidence for various treatment options for the abnormalities of CKD-MBD are considered.
- Chronic kidney disease
- Kidney disease: improving global outcomes
- Mineral and bone disorder
- Renal bone disease